CORRUPTION IN MEDICAL SPHERE OF UKRAINE: CURRENT SITUATION AND WAYS OF PREVENTION
Introduction: All social life spheres in Ukraine are influenced by corruption. Ukrainian citizens were inquired in order to determine corruption rate in various social spheres. It was conditioned by reforming criminal justice and administrative management, which is directed, particularly, for liquidation of corruption in the state. Special emphasize is stressed on corruption rate in the medical sphere. The aim of the article is to determine: 1) population’s attitude towards to corruption, in particular, in the medical sphere; 2) the most corruptive social spheres; 3) efficiency of anti-corruption measures; 4) readiness of population to participate into struggle with corruption. Materials and methods: The study is grounded on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic, sociological (special-purpose inquiry form, interview), statistic and comprehensive research methods. The study group consisted of 1 120 citizens and 513 medical and pharmaceutical professionals of Ukraine. Questions were related to: 1) citizens’ contact with corruption; 2) corruption expansion rate in state authorities, self-governing authorities, in various infrastructure spheres, particularly, in healthcare; 3) awareness about struggle with corruption in the state and in the region and determination of citizens’ readiness to cope with corruption. Results: Corruption contact level of citizens remains steadily high. Corruption in the medical sphere is the most widespread: during the previous year before the inquire 63% respondents were involved into corruptive schemes. Corruption in the medical sphere can be subdivided in the following levels: from patient to doctor; inside the hospital – from a healthcare institution employee to the executive hospital staff; on state level concerning state procurements of medications. A bribe to health care professionals was given for: receipt of a sick leave certificate and various references (for example, about unfitness for military service, fitness for driving a car or fulfillment of particular works); high-quality conduct of an operation, medical servicing rendering; writing out a “necessary” prescription; approval or hiding of any bodily injuries; falsification of a true cause of death. All health care professionals have come across different corruptive practices, among which the following payments are widespread: for employment in a hospital, license for private medical practice or establishment of private clinics, “avoidance” of checks of healthcare institutions’ activity. The largest bribes are given state officials for participation in tenders for medical drugs supply by pharmaceutical companies. All health care professionals have come across different corruptive practices, among which the following payments are widespread: for employment in a hospital, license for private medical practice or establishment of private clinics, “avoidance” of checks of healthcare institutions’ activity. Conclusion: Corruption on the sphere of medical practice is complex phenomenon. The conducted poll made it possible to structure the corruption problem, to see its various levels and levels. In respondents’ opinion, a scrupulous information campaign is a positive tendency: 45% consider this is a guarantee of anticorruption. Nevertheless, only 5% respondents assume personal notification of anticorruption bodies about receipt of a bribe by medical staff.
health care, patient, patients’ rights, defects in medical care, охорона здоров'я, пацієнт, права пацієнтів, недоліки медичної допомоги
Batyrgareieva V. et al. CORRUPTION IN MEDICAL SPHERE OF UKRAINE: CURRENT SITUATION AND WAYS OF PREVENTION. Wiadomości Lekarskie 2019, tom LXXII, nr 9 cz II. Pp. 1814-1821.